Dengue is a mosquito borne diseases that affects thousands of people across the world every year. In Asian countries like India, Nepal, Burma etc dengue is more common. It is reported that in India is two hundred times higher than what is officially reported and the disease poses huge burden on the country in terms of medical and expenses on other prevention measures. Dengue spread through the mosquito bites that can be easily prevented if proper preventive measures are taken like keeping your house and surroundings clean with no standing water. Children are particularly vulnerable to dengue due to their weak immune systems and there is more fatality rate among children due to dengue fever compare to adults. In the areas where there is greater population of mosquitoes, mosquito repellents for babies should be used to prevent mosquito bites on your kids.
Dengue fever is caused by the four viruses known as DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4. These viruses are very small, single stranded and spherical with an envelope from the family Flaviviridae. In human dengue virus are transmitted by the mosquito bites. Not all mosquitoes are capable of spreading dengue, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are said to be the most predominant vectors for dengue infection, but Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and many other Aedes species can also transmit dengue. Dengue mosquitoes often breed near the human habitation and can easily breed even in small amounts of water. These mosquitoes are most daytime biter. If the mosquitoes are disturbed during the process of sucking blood from one person, they tend to bite other people nearby and in most cases infect many members of the same family, who then develop infection within a one or two days.
Dengue is more common in India that had about six million clinically diagnosed dengue cases every year. This cases are widely under reported. In recent years, dengue fever outbreaks in India have become more larger and frequent, with a greater number of severe cases and deaths. “Good data on the incidence and cost of the illness have been lacking due to gaps in how information on individual cases is collected and reported,” said Narendra Arora, MD, executive director of INCLEN.
In today's world, introduction of many modern technologically advanced gadgets have become popular across the generations. Most of the youths have made laptops and cell phones their companion and prefer them more compare to real life people. Earlier the gadgets were use only for their requirement like hair dryers were used for drying hair, washing machines for washing clothes. But today's young population have made their life dependent on gadgets like cell phones and laptops and these dependency has reached at such level that, without these gadgets and services they can't even think a step in the direction of growth and development. Gadgets are no more a tool for them, but it has become an addiction similar to the addiction of drugs and alcohol. Youths are the most vulnerable group among the population to be addicted by the modern technology.
A recent study conducted by UK based research team on the most used seven informational gadgets have found out:
Mobile phones: More than 80% population of UK now own a mobile phone. Mobile phone ownership rates among the young population shows the extent of cell phone usage have become a necessary part of communication. About 95% of British of age 18 to 25 owns a mobile phone.
Laptops and Desktop computers: More than 70% of UK population owns either a laptop or desktop computer. Popularity of laptop has gone dramatically from the year 2005 while the usage of desktop computers have declined.
Prefabrication and modularization is today's success mantra in construction industries. Prefabrication is also setting its place in data center industry too. There are many industrialist from container manufacturer who are selling space to equip large computer components and equipment. The so called expert use term like modular or prefab to sell their products and real estate. While each of these manufacturer will say that their solution is best, the
correct answer is that prefab can take on many forms based on the needs of the user.
Modular and prefab architecture are not very recent phenomenon. Prefabrication was invented in the late 19th century but only have become popular in the last decade. Since prefab or modular construction has around for many years, more than 75 percent of construction industry owners are using prefabrication to complete their projects. Its been projected by the end of 2015, more than 95% of industrialist would be doing prefabrication or modularization in their project execution. Prefabrication is said to be growing in other industries as well apart from construction.
For example porta cabins is gaining popularity in many developing countries including India, China, Brazil and South Africa. These cabins are built with prefab technology and are useful for providing temporary accommodation quickly. Porta cabin (also called as portable cabin) can be easily transported to different location using heavy trucks. They are built with steel frame making it durable and strong. Since they are built with prefab process, most of the components are built inside factory. Many manufacturer of portacabin also give them on rent making it even cheaper option for the consumer. For those who are looking for durable portable cabins can search on internet for various different collection.
A prefabricated building or houses are often built with a combination of site-built components and prefabricated components. In addition, modular construction are site-speciﬁc or a one-off project like the Taj Palace in Mumbai. The first mass produced modular house is said to be Manning PortableCottage, introduced in the year 1830 and transported from London to Perth for the construction of its new settlements. Houses like these actually resembled porta cabins, with the interior being merely the reverse side of the exterior. The investigation into mass-produced prefabricated houses received considerable pursuit by many of the great architects of 13th century, including Le Corbusier, Buckminster Fuller,, Walter Gropius, and Konrad Wachsmann. But none of these houses ever achieved the goal of mass production.
Prefabricated elements are simple building units that involve a single building trade. The advantage of prefabrication and modularization is that they increase productivity by at least 25 percent and reduce cost by 20 percent. According to many studies and surveys, 65% of user indicates that with prefabrication or modularization there has been a positive impact on their project budgets with 36 percent indicating that it reduced project budgets by 15% or more. Another benefits of prefabrication is that it provides safety to its worker and staffs. The studies show thirty five percent believe that prefabrication had improved site safety.
After the recession in the year 2008, there has been ongoing debates that focused mainly on economics, industrial growth and development. Experts are trying to find out a robust solution to end the financial crisis that the world and in particular American and European countries are facing. The debate is mostly on how to sustain industrial growth, increasing jobs and this reducing unemployment, increasing per capital income and eradicating poverty. Since the last decade there has been regular increase in poverty and unemployment which has resulted in unrest in many countries including India and other Asian countries. There has been increasingly demands from the people in many developing countries for the betterment of their life and development of their living standards.
But for many countries, this may not be an easy task. The jobs just cannot be created simply by uttering words but it needs concrete long term steps and commitment. To create jobs there has to be economic development and the entrepreneurs along with government need to find out different ways to increasing jobs and employments. For a sustained job creation a structural change need to implemented so that the economy can generate constantly new works and activities that requires manpower. Greater opportunities than in other sectors to accumulate capital, exploit economies of scale, acquire new technologies and more fundamentally – foster embodied and disembodied technological change are found in manufacturing, which has become the core of structural transformation and industrial growth.